MACHINE LEARNING

SEPTEMBER 14 - NOVEMBER 05, 2022
ADAM CHIN'S SOLO EXHIBITION
Curated by DeWitt Cheng

FRONT and PROFILE

Front and Profile pairs archival mugshot photographs with their Machine Learning generated counterparts. For each diptych a b&w mugshot photo is input into a Machine Learning neural network and the network is tasked with producing the most likely alternate view. Front and Profile was made to highlight the issue of racial bias in AI. The network used to make Front and Profile was trained on a database of mugshots from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST. The database was made up of mugshots of unidentified men from the 1930’s-1970’s. It was found that almost half of the men in the database were African-American, when the actual percentage of African-Americans in the US is around 13%. How does this racial bias affect the performance of AI programs being trained on this database? Will it even be possible to construct an “unbiased” dataset? There are other disturbing issues which Front and Profile raises. What can stop a government from generating multiple pictures of a person from just their driver’s license or passport photo? What rights to privacy does a person have? Finally, how accurate are these Machine Learning generated images? For now the results are fairly crude, but as the technology advances they will become more photoreal. Will these future images be any more accurate than they are now, or will they simply be clearer images of the wrong person?

AVAILABLE AS DIPTYCHS ONLY

Frames Available Separately
Click on image for larger view

Mugshot #3 (1/10), 2019
Gelatin Silver Print 15x15 in
Framed 21.25 x 21 in
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Mugshot #3 (1/10), 2019
Gelatin Silver Print 15x15 in
Framed 21.25 x 21 in

Mugshot #44 (1/10), 2019
Gelatin Silver Print 15x15 in
Framed 21.25 x 21 in
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Mugshot #44 (1/10), 2019
Gelatin Silver Print 15x15 in
Framed 21.25 x 21 in
 

Mugshot #61 (1/10), 2019
Gelatin Silver Print 15x15 in
Framed 21.25 x 21 in
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Mugshot #61 (1/10), 2019
Gelatin Silver Print 15x15 in
Framed 21.25 x 21 in

Mugshot #67 (1/10), 2019
Gelatin Silver Print 15x15 in
Framed 21.25 x 21 in
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Mugshot #67 (1/10), 2019
Gelatin Silver Print 15x15 in
Framed 21.25 x 21 in 

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PHOTOBOOTH KISS

Can a machine create an image with human emotion?

Each diptych in Photobooth Kiss contains a photograph of a couple looking at the camera and a second image of the same couple kissing. The second image is made by a custom-built Artificial Intelligence program; it is an attempt to make a new “photograph” of the original couple kissing.

A Machine Learning neural network was trained on a database of couples in photobooths. Photobooth strips of 200 couples were collected and two photos from each strip were used in the training: a non-kissing photo and a kissing photo. The neural network “learned” what a non-kissing couple looks like when they kiss. Once trained, a previously unseen photograph of a non-kissing couple is input into the neural network and the program then predicts and renders a photograph of the couple kissing.

While the AI images in Photobooth Kiss fall short of their goal of being a new “photograph”, the images in this series demonstrate that it is technologically possible. If this technology succeeds, AI will have the ability to create photographs of kisses that may not have actually happened, and by extension, events that may not have happened. For now, the question still remains whether an AI generated “photograph” will ever be able to make a genuine kiss. Will it be able to capture a true intimate moment between two people?

Who are these couples in the photobooths? Some are friends, some are friends who are no longer with us, others are strangers. The subjects were chosen for their diversity in sexuality, ethnicity, and time period — to challenge our assumptions of who may or may not be kissing. We may never know if these couples actually kissed in the photobooth that day. Photobooth Kiss constructs an alternative photographic reality where, indeed, the two did kiss.

Prints Available as Diptychs only. Frames Available Separately


Wille Jean and Joanne (1/10), 2021

Gelatin Silver Prints
Each Print in Diptych 10.43 x 9 in
Framed 17 x 25 in


Kiss #25 (1/10), 2021

Gelatin Silver Prints
Each Print in Diptych 11.03 x 9 in
Framed 17 x 25 in


Eric & Dijola (1/10), 2021

Gelatin Silver Prints
Each Print in Diptych 11.25 x 9 in
Framed 17 x 25 in


Kiss #17 (1/10), 2021

Gelatin Silver Prints
Each Print in Diptych 10.59 x 9 in
Framed 17 x 25 in


Kiss #10 (1/10), 2021

Gelatin Silver Prints
Each Print in Diptych 11.11 x 9 in
Framed 17 x 25 in


Kiss #19 (1/10), 2021

Gelatin Silver Prints
Each Print in Diptych 10.75  x 9 in
Framed 17 x 25 in

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SAGAN 

When is a face a face? How much do we need to see before we can recognize who it is? And when does an image become a portrait? SAGAN is a series of portraits generated by the Machine Learning algorithm Self-Attention Generative Adversarial Networks. For each portrait, 800 photographs are taken of the subject. The photographs are fed into a neural network, and the network is tasked with producing a new “photograph” that is indistinguishable from any of the original 800. To accomplish this task, the neural network employs an iterative process where the image evolves over the course of approximately 80,000 training cycles. In the course of this training, the neural network generates 8,000 attempts at a photograph. Of those 8,000 attempts, 16 are selected by the artist to form the final portrait. Due to Covid restrictions, the artist was not able to get close enough to photograph the actual subjects. Instead, the subjects were given a remote control for the camera and they took the 800 photographs themselves. Thus the portraits in SAGAN are actually self-portraits.

Woman #1 (1/10), 2021
Gelatin Silver Print
15 x 15 in
Framed 21.25 x 21 in
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Man #228 (1/10), 2021
Gelatin Silver Print
15 x 15 in
Framed 21.25 x 21 in
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EVOLUTION

Program length: 12 min.
(Available in a Custom , Engraved Flash Drive )

Evolution is a video installation which shows a Machine Learning neural network creating the SAGAN portraits Man #1, Woman #1, and Man #2.The neural network is fed 800 photographs of the subject and is tasked with creating a photograph that looks like one of the 800. Each frame of Evolution is an actual output frame from the neural network, and this trail of output documents the learning process. When the output is played back, the resulting animation is reminiscent of Eadweard Muybridge’s early photographic motion studies.

Click on image for Preview of Video on Artist's Website/YouTube

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"a man eating sushi "

This simple sentence is meant to conjure benign images of men sitting alone, dining on varied plates of nigiri sushi. What would this scene look like in the mind’s eye? The images in “a man eating sushi” are made by an Artificial Intelligence program which performs a text-to-image process. The text “a man eating sushi” is input into the program and the computer draws a picture of what it thinks that sentence looks like. The AI program is trained on a database of 60 million photographs and their associated captions taken from the internet. The images in “a man eating sushi” represent a computational attempt to construct a reality based on content drawn from the internet.

The AI program used to create this series is a combination of the algorithms Dall-e, VQGAN, and Clip-Guided Diffusion. The source code and database are by Jack000.

Man #122 (1/10), 2022
Archival Pigment Print
15 x 15 in
Framed 18.5 x 18.5 in
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Man #30 (1/10), 2022
Archival Pigment Print
15 x 15 in
Framed 18.5 x 18.5 in
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Man #46 (1/10), 2022
Archival Pigment Print
15 x 15 in
Framed 18.5 x 18.5 in
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Man #181 (1/10), 2022
Archival Pigment Print
15 x 15 in
Framed 18.5 x 18.5 in
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Street Parade

Photos (Artist Proofs) from the San Francisco Pride Parade 2010-2018

Royalty (AP/1), 2011
Selenium Toned Gelatin Silver Print
11 x 14 in
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Umbrella (AP/1), 2012
Selenium Toned Gelatin Silver Print
11 x 14 in
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Angels (AP/1), 2013
Selenium Toned Gelatin Silver Print
11 x 14 in
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Asian Dykes (AP/1), 2013
Selenium Toned Gelatin Silver Print
11 x 14 in
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Safe Latino (AP/1), 2015
Selenium Toned Gelatin Silver Print
11 x 14 in
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Young Dykes (AP/1), 2013
Selenium Toned Gelatin Silver Print
11 x 14 in
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